by Chelsea Lee All APA Style in-text citations have two parts: the author and the date. Some in-text citations also include page numbers (or other location information when page numbers are not available, as with some online materials). This post describes when and how to include page numbers in APA Style for different kinds of citations as well as how to include the appropriate location information in lieu of page numbers when page numbers are not available. Direct Quotations A direct quotation reproduces the words of another writer verbatim and is displayed in quotation marks (if the quotation is fewer than 40 words) or as a block quotation (if the quotation is 40 words or more). When you include a direct quotation in a paper, include the author, date, and page number on which the quotation can be found (or other location information) in the citation.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is the standard method of publishing one’s writing in psychology as well as other social sciences such as nursing, anthropology, sociology, business and gender studies (APA, 2010, p. The following are highlights of some of the more important aspects of 6th Edition APA formatting, but do not constitute the whole of APA style. Please consult the manual (held on reserve at Boatwright Library) for a complete explanation of publishing guidelines. For an in-depth example of how an APA-style paper should look like, check out this Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style 6th Edition Dr. Include author’s last name followed by a comma, then the year of publication. (2012) found that nurses who used self-efficacy interventions for HIV patients showed a slight increase in patient adherence to retroviral treatment, though these effects were impacted by patient depression and lack of social capital. If you are directly quoting an author, also include the page or paragraph number. For works with no listed author, or for legal documents, cite in text the first few words of the title. Use double quotation marks inside the parentheses for articles, webpages, or chapter titles; italicize titles of periodicals, books, brochures, or reports.
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck. Remember to keep your audience in mind as you are making this decision. To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002). If certain information is particularly pertinent for conveying your research, then ensure that there is a section of your paper that adequately addresses that information. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck. You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL You Tube Channel. This resource, revised according to the 6 edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. Include a page header (also known as the “running head“) at the top of every page. Podcast retrieved from all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. For more information, please consult the printing). This resource, revised according to the 6 edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc. No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator’s name, the phrase “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in your main text only. For more information, please consult the printing).
You may have already written a "research paper" that was really a literature review! Many "library research" assignments are actually simplified literature reviews. So you've probably done one before and you shouldn't be intimidated! dissertation, this review will be comprehensive covering all research on the topic. Literature reviews are different depending what their purpose is. But if the review is part of a smaller research report, you need to cover the major work that has been done on the topic recently, but it is not necessary to try to identify all research on the subject. Continue to: Understand the review | Start the review | Develop the review | Organize the review There are dozens of techniques for creating a literature review, and they vary by your field of study, the purpose of the review, the topic, and sometimes even the personal preferences of the professor (or Defense Board, or journal Editor in the cases of dissertations or articles you write for publication).
This guide offers tips & "best practices" on how to perform & write a literature review. Click on a tab to learn more about a specific step in the literature review process, and, as always, if you have any questions, feel free to contact at librarian.
To complete a literature review, you must decide on your topic, research academic databases, organize your findings and write your review. The American Psychological Association provides specific guidelines for writing your review, from overall organization to minute details in formatting. Once you have organized and analyzed your findings, use APA style to write your review. Before you begin writing, ensure that your document is formatted properly. Set your page margins to 1 inch and double your spacing unless otherwise specified. Your header will contain a running heading and the page number on every page, including the title page.
Typically APA Style reference list entries and in-text citations do not include the authors’ academic credentials or professional titles. Smith, Ph D, then the reference entry refers to Smith, S. Professional titles are also omitted from reference list entries and in-text citations. For example, for a Thomas the Train book written by the Reverend W. Awbry, the reference refers to Awbry, W., and the in-text citation will be to Awbry (1946). Here are some common examples of academic credentials and professional titles to omit from references and citations (note this is not an exhaustive list—anything in a similar vein will count): Note that if you do want to mention an author’s academic credentials or professional title in the text because it is relevant to the discussion, you should use the format without periods (e.g., Ph D, not Ph. D.; an exception is for abbreviations of a single word, such as ).
an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006).
What words count toward the word count in an APA Style paper? Am I supposed to count the title page, abstract, citations, and reference list? Dear Wordy, Counting the number of words in an APA Style paper is easy: Count all the words in the entire paper to get the total word count. Are there minimums or maximums for the word count of a sentence or paragraph? That includes the title page, abstract, main text, quotations, headings, citations, footnotes, reference list, tables, figure captions, and appendices—everything. This gives an accurate representation of the overall length of your paper and saves you from having to perform elaborate calculations just to know whether your paper is too long, too short, or just right. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to count the words in your paper.
When we write a literature review we should always take into account certain details about the formatting, as they can change depending on what style are we using. If it is a literature review APA style or an MLA style, for example, we should always know that they change almost everything, making every literature review different from a formatting point of view. Also, it is important to know that a literature review is an analysis that provides background information on a topic a scholar uses to explain something with better words, or just to give an entrance to a further and more explanatory subject. A literature review in APA format, for example, is not a summary of sources or a compilation of facts, neither a criticism of literature nor a book review. A literature review is mostly referred to as an introduction to a large subject, especially research papers and works of that style.